- magdeburg Jewish community. Though following the practice of reform judaism – he preached in German and introduced the organ and the rite of confirmation – he tried to steer a middle course between Reform and orthodoxy . He was among the initiators of the rabbinical conferences of Brunswick (1844), Frankfurt/Main (1845), and Breslau (1846), but was critical of their decisions. One of his projects was the establishment of a modern institution for training scholars, rabbis, and teachers. From 1834 Philippson started editing several periodicals, first the monthly Israelitisches Predigt- und Schulmagazin (1834–36), followed by his famous AZJ, the most important Jewish weekly of the 19th century, which was also dedicated to the struggle for emancipation in all parts of Germany and Europe and fought discrimination and antisemitism. From 1839–53, he published a popular translation and commentary of the Bible, which went through three editions (18582, 18783), together with a revised edition illustrated by Gustav Doré (1875). Along with I.M. Jost , A. Jellinek , and others he founded the Institut zur Foerderung der Israelitischen Literatur (1854–73), whose main achievement was the publication of H. Graetz 's Geschichte der Juden (1853–76). In 1862, he had to resign as rabbi of Magdeburg because he had become almost blind. He moved to Bonn, where he continued his journalistic and literary work until his death. He was among the founders of the Israelitische Bibelanstalt (1862), the deutsch-israelitischer gemeindebund (1869), and the hochschule fuer die wissenschaft des judentums (1872). Ludwig Philippson had nine children. Three of his sons attained fame in their respective fields: (Johannes Valentin Schwarz (2nd ed.) (2a) MARTIN EMANUEL PHILIPPSON (1846–1916) was a historian and a communal leader in Berlin. Born at Magdeburg, he studied in Bonn and Berlin, where he later worked as a teacher, volunteered in the Franco-Prussian War (1870/71), and was finally appointed assistant professor at Bonn in 1875. However, when Emperor William I would not sanction the appointment of a Jew, he took a professorship at the Free University of Brussels (1878), and eventually became rector there. In 1890, he was forced to resign this post in the face of agitation by anti-German and radical students, and returned to Berlin as a private scholar. From 1891, he devoted his energies to Jewish communal affairs and to his writing. He was chairman of the deutsch-israelitischer gemeindebund (1896–1912) which, in 1906, initiated the Gesamtarchiv der deutschen Juden; chairman of the gesellschaft zur foerderung der wissenschaft des judentums (1902), which commissioned his three-volume Neueste Geschichte des juedischen Volkes (1907–11, 19302); and chairman of the verband der deutschen juden (1904). He also headed the hochschule (Lehranstalt) fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums. In all, he published some 12 studies in modern history, especially on Prussia, but their scholarship has been sharply questioned by fellow historians. (Herbert A. Strauss / Johannes Valentin Schwarz (2nd ed.) (2b) FRANZ MOSES PHILIPPSON (1851–1929), the seventh child of Ludwig, was a Belgian banker, financier, and communal leader. Born in Magdeburg, he was sent to Brussels in 1865 to work as a clerk in the errera banking house. In 1871, he established his own bank in Belgium and directed it for over 50 years until his death. Involved from the beginning in the Belgian colonization of Africa, he was an administrator of the Belgian Congo railways in 1889, becoming its president in 1924, and was founder of the Banque du Congo Belge (1909) and its vice president from 1911 to 1919. Philippson was president of the Brussels Jewish community and a leader of Belgian Jewry, from 1918 as president of the consistoire Central Israélite de Belgique. He represented the Brussels community on the administrative council of the jewish colonization association (ICA) from 1896, becoming vice president in 1901 and president in 1919. He made an important contribution to Jewish colonization efforts in Argentina and Brazil. He died in 1929 in Paris. Franz's first son, MAURICE (1877–1938), was professor of zoology and physiology at Brussels University; his second son, JULES (1881–1961), became head of the firm F.M. Philippson & Co. after the death of his father. PAUL PHILIPPSON (1910–1978), son of Maurice, was also a banker and Jewish leader in Belgium. Born in Brussels, he was an officer in the Belgian Forces (1940–45); president and founding member of the Service Social Juif (from 1945); president of the Jewish community of Brussels (1945–63); chairman of the Consistoire Central Israélite de Belgique (from 1963); and chairman of the Social Service Commission of the European Council of Jewish Communities. (Max Gottschalk / Johannes Valentin Schwarz (2nd ed.) (2c) ALFRED PHILIPPSON (1864–1953), the youngest son of Ludwig, born at Bonn, became a geographer and geologist. As a student of Ferdinand von Richthofen (1833–1905), the founder of modern geography, he followed his teacher from Bonn to Leipzig University, where he took his doctor's degree (Studien ueber Wasserscheiden) in 1886, aged 22. In the course of a distinguished career he specialized in the east Mediterranean region, particularly Greece and Asia Minor. In 1891, he was appointed university lecturer at Bonn, 1899 assistant professor. Since a full professorship was denied to him as a Jew, he accepted a chair at Basel University in 1904, finally becoming head of the department of geography. In 1906, he was called back to Halle, and in 1911 to Bonn. In 1929, upon his retirement, his pupils and admirers published a volume of geographical essays in his honor. Several of his many books have become classics of regional geography, among them: Der Peloponnes (1892), Zur Morphologie des rheinischen Schiefergebirges (1903), Das Mittelmeergebiet (1904, 19224), Europa (1905, 19283), Grundzüge der allgemeinen Geographie (1921/24, 1930/33), Das fernste Italien (1925), and Das byzantinische Reich als geographische Erscheinung (1939). In 1933, he was awarded the Great Gold Richthofen Medal by the German Geographical Society. He continued to play a leading role in German geographical research until he was banned from the university and all other scientific bodies by the Nazi regime. In 1942, at the age of 78, he was deported to theresienstadt but managed to survive. In 1945, despite terrible suffering, he returned to his scientific activities, which he continued to his death in Bonn, aged 89. In this last period he produced two of his best works: Die Stadt Bonn. Ihre Lage und raeumliche Entwicklung (1947, 195112), an outstanding work on urban geography, and Die griechischen Landschaften (1950–59). (Mordechai Breuer / Johannes Valentin Schwarz (2nd ed.) (3) JULIUS PHILIPPSON (1814–1871), the younger brother of Ludwig, who was only three months old when their father Moses died, became a businessman at Magdeburg. Of his six children, HEINRICH (1849–1908) became a businessman at Magdeburg, too. EMIL (1851–1906) studied modern languages and comparative philology in Bonn, Berlin, and Leipzig, where he took his doctor's degree. Since he was barred from an academic career, he accepted an offer from the Philanthropin in Frankfurt/Main in 1874, till he became headmaster of the Jacobsonschule at Seesen in 1886. ROBERT (1858–1942) studied philosophy and classics in Bonn, Leipzig, and Berlin, where he took his degree in 1881. He followed his brother Emil to the Frankfurt Philanthropin, till he was admitted to the Wilhelmsgymnasium at Magdeburg as the first Jewish teacher in the Prussian province of Saxony. He retired in 1923. In 1942, aged 84, he was deported to Theresienstadt, where he died a week after his arrival. Robert's oldest son JULIUS (1894–1944), who was dismissed as a teacher in 1933, joined the Socialist underground movement Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund (ISK), until he was caught by the Gestapo in 1937. He was later deported to Auschwitz, where he died from exhaustion. JOHANNA PHILIPPSON (1887–1977), a daughter of Heinrich, chose a career as a teacher, from 1930 holding a senior position at the Elisabethschule in Berlin until she was dismissed in 1933. Thereafter, she taught at the schools of the Jewish community. In 1939, she immigrated to London, where she engaged in adult education and contributed to various periodicals. In 1962, she published a detailed study in the Leo Baeck Institute Year Book on "The Philippsons, a German-Jewish Family 1775–1933." Their history, as she wrote, "seems typical of many German Jewish families: the very rapid inhaling of German civilization, the high degree of assimilation, and the abrupt ending." (Johannes Valentin Schwarz (2nd ed.) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Salomon, Lebensgeschichte des Herrn Moses Philippsohn (1814); Ph. Philippson, Biographische Skizzen, 1 (1864); M. Kayserling, Ludwig Philippson (1898); M. Philippson, in: JJGL, 14 (1911), 84–108; J.C. Dornfeld, in: CCARY, 21 (1911); J. Feiner, Ludwig Philippson (1912); Wininger, 5 (1930), 17–25; Festschrift… A. Philippson (1930); Biographie Coloniale Belge, 3 (1952); J. Rosenthal, in: S. Federbush (ed.), Hokhmat Yisrael be-Ma'arav Eiropah, 1 (1958), 399–408; J. Philippson, in: LBIYB, 7 (1962), 95–118; E.G. Lowenthal, in: LBI Bulletin, 8 (1965), 89–106. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Philippson, in: H. Liebeschütz and A. Paucker (eds.), Das Judentum in der Deutschen Umwelt, 1800–1850 (1977), 243–91; E. Friesel, in: LBIYB, 31 (1986), 121–46; H.O. Horch, in: LBI Bulletin, No. 86 (1990), 5–21; G. von Glasenapp, in: A.B. Kilcher (ed.), Metzler Lexikon der deutsch-jüdischen Literatur (2000), 459–61; A. Mehmel, A. Brämer, I. Fischer, in: NDB, 20 (2001), 395–401.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
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Philippson — Philippson, Ludwig, geb. 1811 in Dessau von jüdischen Eltern, studirte 1829–33 Philologie in Berlin, wurde im Herbst 1833 Prediger der israelitischen Gemeinde in Magdeburg u. 1840 auch Rabbiner; 1849 wurde er zum Mitglied des Gewerberathes u.… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
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Philippson — Philippson, Alfred, Geograph, geb. 1. Jan. 1864 in Bonn, 1899 1904 Professor der Geographie an der Universität Bonn, seitdem in Bern, bereiste mehrfach Griechenland, den Griech. Archipel und Kleinasien; außer Werken über diese Gebiete schrieb er… … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Philippson  — Philippson, Martin, Geschichtschreiber, geb. 27. Juni 1846 zu Magdeburg, 1875 Prof. der Geschichte zu Bonn, 1878 zu Brüssel, lebt seit 1890 in Berlin; schrieb: »Geschichte Preußens vom Tode Friedrichs d. Gr.« (1880 82), »Das Zeitalter Ludwigs XIV … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
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Philippson, Franz M. — (1851–1925) Belgian banker. Coming from a distinguished German family of publishers, scientists and communal leaders, Philippson established a Brussels bank that played an active part in the colonization of the Congo. He was head of the… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Philippson, Franz — (1851 1925) Belgian financier and communal leader, son of Ludwig Philippson. He was born in Magdeburg. He established a bank in Belgium in 1871. Later he was president of the Belgian Congo railway company and a founder of the Belgian Congo… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography